Causes of Lower Abdominal Pain in Women

Lower abdominal pain in women can have many different causes and vary significantly depending on a woman’s age, health history, lifestyle, overall general health conditions and more. Common causes of lower abdominal pain can range from the very common to the rare and serious.

Menstruation and Period Pain

For many women, the most common cause of lower abdominal pain is a menstrual cycle. This type of abdominal discomfort can vary in severity from mild to severe, and typically becomes more noticeable as menstruation approaches or during it. In some cases, period pain may be so severe that it can interfere with daily activities and become disabling.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the more common causes of lower abdominal pain in women. UTIs occur when bacteria enter and infect the bladder, urethra or kidneys. Symptoms include frequent urination, painful urination, abdominal pain, back pain as well as fever and nausea. Treatment for UTIs usually involves antibiotics.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause lower abdominal pain in women. Symptoms vary, but may include irregular or heavy periods, pelvic pain and fever. PID is treated with antibiotics and surgery may be necessary if the infection causes complications.

Gas (Flatulence)

Excessive gas can cause lower abdominal pain in women due to the buildup of air in the intestines and stomach. This type of pain is commonly referred to as “gas pain” or “flatulence.” Dietary changes are often enough to reduce symptoms, but medications may also be prescribed to help reduce gas-related pain.

Polyps or Diverticular Disease

Polyps and diverticular disease can cause lower abdominal pain in women due to inflammation of the intestine or colon. Symptoms usually include bloating, cramps, constipation, nausea and fever. Treatment for this type of abdominal pain typically involve antibiotics and may require surgery if the condition is severe.


Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix and is another common cause of lower abdominal pain in women. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever and abdominal cramps that usually start around the navel before shifting to the right lower abdomen as the condition progresses. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or surgery to remove the appendix.

Muscular Pain

Muscular pain in the lower abdomen can also cause abdominal discomfort in women, especially during pregnancy or after heavy physical activity. Treatment for this type of pain includes rest, gentle stretching and taking over-the-counter medications to reduce inflammation and discomfort.

Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is a rare, but serious cause of lower abdominal pain in women. This type of pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes. Symptoms may include severe abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding with or without shock. Treatment for ectopic pregnancies usually involves surgery or medication to terminate the pregnancy if necessary.

Lower abdominal pain in women is a common symptom of many different conditions, from the very common to the rare and serious. It is important to see your doctor if you experience any type of stomach pain that does not go away with simple home remedies or becomes severe. This will help ensure that any underlying conditions are identified and treated promptly for optimal health.

Ultimately, it’s best to talk to your doctor about any abdominal pain you may be experiencing. They can help diagnose the cause and provide proper treatment. Knowing what’s causing your lower abdominal pain is the first step toward finding relief.

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